Solar PV modules are made by connecting together photovoltaic (PV) cells or solar cells. They are manufactured from semiconductor materials like crystalline silicon. Solar modules convert the light energy captured from the sun into electric energy. The electric energy so produced is used for lighting residential and commercial establishments.
A single PV cell is usually manufactured in 12.5 cm and 15 cm square sizes and generates only 1 or 2 watts of power. Solar PV modules are used for boosting the power output of PV cells by connecting them. When PV cells (present in the solar modules) absorb sunlight, the energy present in the photons of light is transferred to the semiconductor material. The electrons are made to flow through the semiconductor material as electric current. Generally, each solar PV module is rated in the range of 50 W to 350 W. These modules may or may not be linked to the electrical grid to complete the solar PV system.
In a solar module the solar cells are connected in same fashion as the battery cell units in a battery bank system. That means positive terminals of one cell connected to negative terminal voltage of solar module is simple sum of the voltage of individual cells connected in series in the module.
Solar PV Modules
Features of Solar PV Modules
Solar PV modules have aluminium frames that are attached with tapes directly on to the silicon or laminate. These frames are useful for increasing the mechanical strength of PV modules and making the installation process easier
Manufacturers conduct a series of tests for measuring the electricity generated by PV modules using a sun simulator. The sun simulator is designed to produce specific light conditions for measuring the peak power generated by the solar module.
Thin-film solar modules are made up of layers whose thickness is only 2 microns; they are up to 40 times thinner than a human hair strand.
Polycrystalline solar modules are made of PV cells comprising of numerous small silicon crystals. Polycrystalline modules are more cost-effective but less efficient than monocrystalline solar PV modules.
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